How the landscape around Nijmegen arose Table of the geological timescale of the Pleistocene and Holocene with a summary of the most important sedimentation processes in this period in the Netherlands. Like in the other parts of the Netherlands, the soil at the surface of Nijmegen and surroundings consists mainly of 'young sedimentation material from abroad' deposited during the last 2. Clay, sand and boulders have been transported as erosion products from the old mountains, like the Ardennes and the Eifel, but moreover from the younger Alps arosen about to 50 million years ago during the Cretaceous and Tertiary; see Geological time table by precipitation and melting water with the Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt to the lower basin of the Northsea. Where now the Netherlands are located, a large plain of fluvial sedimentation material has been formed under influence of always shifting meanders of rivers. During Pleistocene, the oldest period during the Quartery epoch, about 2 million years ago, a number of glacial episodes have come and gone repeatedly. The determining factor for the growth of ice sheets is precipitation as snow in winter but moreover relatively low temperatures in summer so that a part of the snow remains and thus a nett accumulation of snow or ice occurs. The concensus is that several factors may cause such temperature decrease: changes in atmospheric composition among which the CO 2 -concentrationvariation in the earth' orbit with respect to the sun excentricity; Bvariations in angle of rotation axis of the earth relative to itsorbit around the sun obliquity; C and variation in precession D the Milankovitch cycles ; watch a video lecture by Dr.
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